Should Not Be Forgotten. The Atrocities of the German Nazi Invaders and Their Collaborators in the Smolensk Region (1941-1943)
Residents of occupied Gzhatsk town, September 1941. Unknown photographer. Russian State Film and Photo Archives.
Residents of occupied Gzhatsk town remove debris, 1941. Unknown photographer. Russian State Film and Photo Archives.
A newsreel fragment from “We Shall Avenge” documentary about atrocities of the German Nazi invaders in the Smolensk region, 1942. Directed by N.Karmazinsky, filmed by A.Krylov, V.Shneyderov. Russian State Film and Photo Archive, Central Newsreel Studio. Click here
Report by the Political Directorate of NKVD troops “Atrocities of German Invaders Against the Prisoners and Local Residents”, not earlier than December 12, 1941. Russian State Military Archives.
“From the report of the Military Commissar for the Rear-Guard of the Western Front
On October 9, Lieutenant Samoilov was seriously wounded in battle. The collective farmers of the Krasnoye village picked him up and provided medical assistance. During his stay in the territory temporarily seized by the enemy, he saw the corpse of a killed Red Army soldier, which was lying on the road, and enemy cars and carts drove over the corpse.
In the villages of Vorobyi and Maltsevo, Nazi soldiers raped girls.
In the village of Borodino, a 60-year-old man, a collective farm watchman, was shot.
The captured Red Army soldiers in the town of Gzhatsk are kept in dirty barracks. For three days, the prisoners were given only two frozen potatoes.
In front of local residents, an old teacher was hanged for being a Jew.
Under the threat of execution, the local population is forbidden to receive and provide any assistance to the servicemen of the Red Army.
In the village of Panaskovo, two boys of 14-15 years old were shot for having found in their pockets 5 rounds from a Russian rifle.”
Partial list of Sukhinichi town residents murdered during the occupation, 1942. The victims’ age (from 1 to 70) is indicated in the 4th column. State Archives of the Russian Federation.
A newsreel fragment from “We Shall Avenge” documentary about atrocities of the German Nazi invaders in the Smolensk region, 1942. Russian State Film and Photo Archives, Central Newsreel Studio. Directed by N.Karmazinsky, filmed by A.Krylov, V.Shneyderov. Click here
Report by the Political Department of the Border Troops of the Western Front NKVD to the Political Directorate of the USSR NKVD troops "On the political and economic state of the regions liberated from the German occupiers", February 5, 1942. Russian State Military Archives.
“Kozelsky district of Smolensk region
Before the arrival of the Germans, 55 thousand inhabitants lived in the area. Now there are 30-35 thousand. Part of the population was evacuated and part went to neighboring areas.
The population happily greets the Red Army, talks about the terrible atrocities and plundering of the German invaders. Before the arrival of the Germans, the workers of the Likhvin timber industry tried to get into the city of Tula. At 35 km from the town of Kozelsk, they were surrounded and captured by German machine gunners, taken to the forest and shot there. Among those shot there was a 14-year-old boy. This was told by Ms Pushkovskaya, who witnessed this brutal massacre.
In Kozelsk, 75% of houses were destroyed. Now normal life is being established. A power plant, a bathhouse, an agricultural machinery plant, and a glass factory are being prepared for commissioning.
Party and Komsomol organizations are being restored. An inventory of property, seed and fodder stock is being carried out. As of January 1, 1942, the collective farms have: seeds - 307 tons, industrial crops - 43 tons, potatoes - 446 tons, horses – 1,495 heads. One machine-tractor station has been restored, which is actively preparing for the autumn sowing.
In the town of Kozelsk there are difficulties in providing the population with food, especially bread. At the end of January, the city was heavily bombed.
The population of the region with great enthusiasm helps the units and organs of the NKVD to expose traitors, spies, and deserters.”
Act of the Commission on the Atrocities of the German Nazi Troops in the Villages of Pobuzh and Dubno, Kozelsk District of Smolensk Region. February 11, 1942. Russian State Military Archives.
On February 11, 1942, we, the undersigned, forming the Commission consisting of: Chairman, Political Instructor M.D.Fedorenko, Border Troops; members: V.A. Shcherbakov, Chairman of Slobodskoy village council of Kozelsk district, Smolensk region, V.E. Satnikov, Chairman of Lenin Collective Farm, witnessed the facts of unprecedented atrocities and violence against the civilian population by the German invaders.
German troops, having been thrown back by the blows of the Red Army from the approaches to the city of Tula, once came to their senses on the borders of the Smolensk region, where they managed to gain a foothold, immediately took up their usual craft of murder.
On January 5, 1942, they found out that there were no Red Army units in the neighboring village of Pobuzh, Kozelsky District, Smolensk Region, and 45 people arrived there. Starting from the last house (from the side of Dubno), the Germans began to expel residents from their houses and shoot them on the move, and set the houses on fire. The defenseless population - the elderly, women and children - had no choice but to flee from their executioners.
In the house of Mr Komarov, a collective farmer, about 30 neighbours took refuge. The Germans kicked them out of the house, knelt down and forced them to pray. After the prayer, they forced everyone to go to the village of Dubno, threw a grenade at them and seriously wounded Mrs N.S. Kurdyukova. The rest of the residents fled, the Germans opened rifle and machine-gun fire on them.
The family of N.S.Kurdyukova - a mother with babies in her arms - was put on their knees. Those who were praying were shot in the back.
The family of Mrs E.E.Nikitochnina, a collective farmer, was saving things from a burning house in the snow, at that time a German approached her and asked in Russian: "Did you clean up everything?" "All" - answered Mrs Nikitochnina; the German immediately shot her with her three children, loaded the property onto a sled and took away.
The family Mrs Danyushkina, a collective farmer, - a mother and three children - took refuge in the cellar. Noticing them, the Germans threw grenades.
Mrs N.V.Obukhova, who was running away from the Germans, had a child shot. Mrs Obukhova continued to run with the corpse of a child and was seriously wounded by fire. She was rescued by the arrived in time units of the Red Army.
In their impotent rage, the Germans turned the village of Pobuzh into a heap of ruins, under which civilians were buried alive.
Out of a total of 156 houses, 140 houses were burned, including property and livestock.
The village of Pobuzh and the surrounding area within a radius of up to 1.5 km are strewn with the corpses of women, children, the elderly, of whom 110 are counted. Of these, 8 are men, 51 are women and 51 are children. 10 wounded women and 1 child were picked up.
Followed by list of Pobuzh village residents murdered during occupation, 1942.
Memorandum by the Secretary of Dzerzhinsky District Committee of the CPSU A.F. Orlyshev and the Chairman of the Dzerzhinsky District Executive Committee S. Romanov to Smolensk Regional Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks and the Regional Executive Committee on the Atrocities of the Nazi Troops on the Territory of Dzerzhinsky District, Smolensk Region, during the Occupation, not earlier than February 1942. State Archives of Contemporary History of the Smolensk Region.
“On January 19, 1942, the units of our valiant Red Army liberated the town of Kondrovo and the village of Polotnyany Zavod from the Nazi yoke. By the end of January, the territory of Dzerzhinsky district was completely cleared of the German invaders.
For three and a half months, the area was in the hands of the Nazi invaders. An unbelievable scope of widespread robbery, general devastation, heinous violence, bullying and mass murder was perpetrated by the Nazi during the occupation and retreat from the region. Smoking houses set fire by the Germans, gallows, charred corpses, heaps of bodies of tortured and shot women, old people and children - these are the traces of Nazi dogs.
The German Nazi monsters destroyed and ruined the industrial enterprises of the region.”
Followed by the description of the destroyed plants, factories, expropriated property and livestock.
Act of the Commission on the Atrocities of the German Nazi Troops in the Village of Dzerzhinsky Commune, Yukhnovsky District, Smolensk Region, during the Occupation, February 18, 1942. State Archives of the Russian Federation.
“We, the undersigned residents of the village of Dzerzhinsky Commune, Yukhnovsky district, Smolensk region, have filed the following indictment.
During the retreat, the Nazi bandits in the village of Dzerzhinsky Commune committed the following atrocities. Despite the fact that there were only civilians in the village, the Nazis continuously bombed the village for 4 days, and the fleeing population was shot from machine guns. Up to 10 Nazi planes took part in the bombing of the village. Later on, a Nazi detachment appeared in the village and burned the buildings that survived the bombing.
The Nazis drove the entire population into a large basement, blocked all the windows with stones, surrounded the exit with straw and flax and set it on fire. There were more than 20 children in the basement, incl. pectorals, which began to suffocate from the smoke. Those in the basement accidentally managed to break down the wall and get out, many children and old people were unconscious. Residents of the village, Mr A.P.Rumyantsev - 20 years old, Ms S.P.Rumyantseva - 14 years old, Mr V.V. Matrosov, having broken down the door, tried to get out of the burning line, but were killed by the Nazis. During the retreat, the Nazis took with them the entire male population, incl. 15-year-old Nikolai Seregin.”
Reconnaissance report No. 1 of the 4th Directorate of the USSR NKVD "On the situation in the regions of the USSR temporarily occupied by the enemy as of March 13, 1942", March 13, 1942.
Central Archives of the FSB.
“The city of Smolensk was almost completely burned and destroyed by the Germans. Among the destroyed buildings: the Palace cinema, the House of the Red Army, the URKM club, the Teacher's House, the City Theater, the City Council building, the building of the District Party Committee, etc. The Zadneprovskaya part of the city was badly damaged.
The city's power plant was recently rebuilt by the Germans: there is a water supply in the upper part of the city. But the use of light and water is extremely limited. Public transport is inactive.
Despite the great destruction, the Germans do not carry out any restoration work in the city.
The population is starving. About 95 percent does not have a job and only a small part is employed in the service of the Germans and in their enterprises: a laundry, a bathhouse, a power plant, etc., serving exclusively the needs of the German command. The workers receive insignificant wages, mostly one Reichsmark a day and 400 g of bread.
All unemployed people are obliged to be registered at the labor exchange. Those who violate this regulation are expelled from the city.
Shops in the city do not work, and there is no private trade, except for the flea market, where you can buy food only in exchange, you cannot buy anything for money.
There is one hospital in the city with paid treatment for the civilian population, but it is in an extremely unsanitary condition.
By order of the German command, at 6 pm all traffic in the city ceases. Those who violate this regulation are taken to the commandant's office or shot. Particularly strict supervision has been established for the male population.
German soldiers are on patrol in the city.
... In the village of Vertnoe, Duminichsky district, the German authorities, suspecting the villagers of participating in the partisan struggle. They captured 50 people of the first collective farmers they came across, including the elderly and children, and shot them.
In the village of Borets, Baryatinsky district, the Germans shot a Red Army prisoner of war, seriously wounded Mr Yakov Katerinochkin and killed his child in front of him.
In the village of Bubnovka, Smolensk region, the Germans shot 3 girls of collective farmers, for the fact that, according to a denunciation received, one of the girls said that it would be good to throw a grenade at a German military train.
In the village of Kashino, the Germans, finding weapons on three citizens, tied them to trees, mocked them for a long time, and then shot them.
In the city of Smolensk, a wire was torn. Finding no culprit, the Germans seized the first 15 people they came across in the streets and shot them.
In the village of Sarlinka, a German car was burned by partisans. In response, the Germans burned down 7 houses with all the property in the village, and their owners were shot.
In the village of Zikolino, the Germans captured Mr Sergei Rodchenkov, a party member and former chairman of the village council, kept him in a sack in the cold all night, and then cut him to pieces.
... The news of the victories of the Red Army penetrated into the villages of Smolensk region. The population is looking forward to getting rid of the Nazi yoke. Many have hidden the weapons left by the Red Army units during the retreat and are waiting for an opportune moment to use them against the invaders. Even some Nazi protégés are beginning to realize the inevitability of the defeat of the German armies and in a number of cases are reluctant to carry out and directly sabotage the orders of the Nazi authorities.”
Testimony by Mr E.S.Romanov, a resident of the village of Gorbolevatka, Prechistinsky district, Smolensk region, about the burning of the village of Novoselki, Prechistinsky district, by the Nazi invaders and the mass execution of its residents, March 1942. State Archives of Contemporary History of Smolensk Region.
Around March 20, 1942, near our village of Novoselki, Domchenkov's partisan detachment defeated a group of German soldiers riding on two pair horses in a sleigh of about 6 people in the direction of the city of Bely. From this group of Germans, 5 people were killed and 1 German was taken prisoner. In addition, the partisans killed 2 horses and took 2 horses with them. After the partisans left, about 100 German soldiers arrived in our village Novoselki, who surrounded the village and set it on fire. In order to save their lives, the population of the village fled, the Germans detained everyone, put men, women and small children in line, regardless of age. In front of the line, machine guns were placed, after which the women were pulled aside, men and male children from 10 years old age, all were shot.
(A list of 22 people follows, ranging from 10 to 70 years old.)
In addition to the aforementioned atrocities used by the Nazi troops against the residents of our village, the Germans brutally tortured Mr K.S.Barykin, 57 years old, tore off his fingers, cut off his nose, tongue and both ears. At the time of the burning of the village, two children, each about 5 years old, were seized from their mother, I don’t know her last name. The Germans threw both children into the flames. Also Mrs E.N.Chubarova, 60 years old, was burnt.
Our entire village, including 43 households, was destroyed.
Act of the Commission on the Atrocities of the German Nazi Troops on the Territory of Kryukovsky Municipality, Yukhnovsky district, Smolensk region, during the Occupation, March 18, 1942. State Archives of the Russian Federation.
We, the undersigned residents of Kryukovsky municipality, Yukhnovsky district, Smolensk region, have filed the following indictment on the atrocities committed by the Nazi troops against the civilian population.
At Dzerzhinsky collective farm, Mr Vasily Matrosov - 23 years old, Mr Sergei Rumyantsev - 15 years old, his sister Ms Anastasia Rumyantseva - 18 years old, was closed by the invaders in the bathhouse. Then they lit the bathhouse, and the listed young citizens died.
At Chapaev collective farm (Fedyukovo village), Mr A.P.Fedyukov, 63 years old, was shot for having come to his own house with his daughter's little child to warm it up.
The Petrov family was driven out of their own house by German executioners and lived in the forest. In the same village they shot Mrs Elena Nazarova - 35 years old.
At Pushkin collective farm (Pushkino village), Mr Alexander Tsygankov, 20 years old, and Mikhail Lapshin, 18 years old, were shot by the Germans.
The first was shot only because he was disabled and a heavy smell emanated from him. The second was taken as a guide, to show the way, and after that, when he showed them the route, in the same forest he was shot.
Mr A.F.Stvolov, 35 years old, was shot at Lenin's Way collective farm (Denisovo village) for refusing to give honey. Shot with motivation as a partisan.
At Krasny Kustar collective farm (Natalinka village) during the population’s forced march, in the arms of Mrs Natalya Burmistrova, her own child, being undressed, froze to death. The Nazi animals rejected the mother's request for permission to take clothes for the child.
Act of the Commission on the Atrocities of the German Nazi Troops on the Territory of Rubikhinsky Municipality, Yukhnovsky District, Smolensk Region, during the Occupation, March 21, 1942. State Archives of the Russian Federation.
We, the undersigned, have filed the following indictment. On the territory of Rubikhinsky municipality, in the village of Nikitino, Yukhnovsky district, Smolensk region, the German occupants brutally killed 8 people from the village of Pupovka: Mr V.S.Zimarev, Mr N.I.Zimarev, Mr F.P.Petrov , Mr M.M.Yakovlev, Mr I.F.Petrov, Mr I.M.Zakharov, Mr E.M.Pugachev, Mr V.O.Pugachev. The reason for the murder is unknown.
Act of the Commission on Torture and Murder by the Nazi German Occupiers of Residents of Pupovka Village, Yukhnovsky District, Smolensk Region, March 28, 1942. State Archives of the Russian Federation.
We, the undersigned residents of Rubikhinsky municipality, Yukhnovsky district, have filed the following indictment.
In the village of Pupovka, Rubikhinsky municipality, 22 collective farmers were brutally tortured and killed by the German Nazis: Mr V.I.Pugachev, 20 years old, the skull was removed, the ear was cut off, the body was cut with a knife; Mr N.V.Andreev, 17 years old, cut off the lips, cut out the genitals, a five-pointed star is carved on the chest; Mr S.F.Boldin, 28 years old, crushed skull, cut off legs and ear; Mr Egor Pugachev, 78 years old, crushed skull. The bodies of this village’s inhabitants were also found here, on which traces of knife wounds and blows with heavy objects are visible: Mr Nikanor Zimarev, 18 years old, Mr V.S.Zimarev, 59 years old, Mr N.I.Zimarev, 17 years old, Mr I.M.Zakharov, 48 years old, Mr Mikhail Ignatov, 67 years old, Mr F.P.Palov, 60 years old, and his two sons – Ivan, 18 years old and Peter, 17 years old, Mr V.O.Pugachev, 81 years old, Mr F.I.Zyabkin, 56 years old, Mr Sergey Zhiltsov , 60 years old, Mr V.V. Gapanov, 51 years old, Mrs V.I.Baranova, 55 years old, Mr Andrey Buzuev, 50 years old, Mr A.V.Zakharov, 55 years old, Mr Mikhail Yakovlev, 63 years old, and other citizens, 22 people in total, suspected of helping the partisans. All the bodies were found in the village of Nikitino, stacked in a row on the road.
Act of the Commission on the Atrocities of the German Nazi Troops on the Territory of Ozersky Municipality, Yukhnovsky District, Smolensk Region, during the Occupation, March 29, 1942. State Archives of the Russian Federation.
On March 29, 1942, we, the undersigned residents of Stalinsky Put collective farm, Ozersk municiplaity, Yukhnovsky district, Smolensk region, have filed the following indictment. During the occupation by German Nazis and robbers in Stalinsky Put collective farm, Ozersk municipality, the following collective farmers were shot: Mr I.I.Vorobyov, 55 years old, Mr M.I.Vorobyov, 52 years old, Mr N.M. Vorobiev, 16 years old, Mr V.K.Starshinov, 15 years old, Mr V.A.Zaletov, 19 years old, Mr P.G.Aristarkhov, 60 years old, Mr A.P. Aristarkhov, 18 years old, Mr V.S. Razumovsky, 19 years old, Mr P.E.Aristarkhov, 18 years old, Mr S.O. Novikov, 30 years old. Before the execution, the German Nazi mocked the aforementioned collective farmers - undressing, they put everyone in a cold shed.
The German Nazi brought 15-year-old girl Natasha Tsutskova from the village of Podpolevo to this collective farm, took her to an uninhabited house, raped her, then shot her and threw under the stove.
The German Nazis mocked the collective farmer Mr A.O.Vorobyov, from whom they took off their shoes and chased through the territory of the collective farm in the snow for three hours.
Act of the Commission on the Extermination of Titovo Village Residents, Dukhovshchinsky District, Smolensk Region, by the Nazi German occupiers, May 31, 1942. Russian State Archives of Social and Political History.
On May 31, 1942, we, the undersigned, filed the following indictment. Another monstrous, sinister crime was committed by the Nazi barbarians. Once again, the Hitlerites took out their impotent anger, caused by failures on the Soviet front, on defenseless Soviet people - women, old people and young children. It seems absolutely incredible that a man of our time can do this. No! And a thousand times no! Only two-legged beasts could do this. It was they who, on May 28, 1942, suddenly attacked the peaceful village Titovo of Spas-Uglovsky municipality, Dukhovshchinsky District, Smolensk region, which has absolutely no strategic significance and military facilities. They burned all 24 houses in this village. It was they, having driven the entire population to the edge of the village in a ditch, defenseless old men, women, children, with a sadistic methodology, point-blank shot them from submachine guns with explosive bullets. They finished off the survivors with pistols and grenades. Thus, 108 people were exterminated, peaceful Soviet citizens, armed only with the fierce hatred of the patriots against the German invaders.
(There follows a list of 51 people whose corpses have been identified, ranging in age from 0 to 70 years.)
59 people could not be recognized, for it was a shapeless mass of human bodies blown up by grenades by Nazi monsters. The blood runs cold when you listen to the story of the miraculously survived, seriously wounded, who survived only because they were littered with the corpses of their fellow villagers. The groans of the wounded, the screams of distraught mothers, young children intertwined with machine-gun bursts, bursting grenades, and laughter, looking like the roar of wild animals, Hitler's bandits.
The Act is compiled from the testimony of eyewitnesses to this monstrous crime, who are being treated in a hospital in Yartsevsky district.
Memorandum by P.P.Kondako, Head of the UNKVD for Smolensk region to V.N.Merkulov, Deputy People's Commissar of the USSR NKVD "On the atrocities and violence against the civilian population, robberies and destruction carried out by the German Nazi invaders in the districts of the Smolensk region". June 19, 1942. Central Archives of the FSB.
As of June 1, 1942, parts of the Red Army and partisan detachments completely liberated 9 districts from the German invaders: Dzerzhinsky, Kozelsky, Sukhinichesky, Meshchevsky, Medynsky, Ilyinsky, Slobodskoy, Kholm-Zhirkovsky, Baturinsky and partially 29: Belizhsky, Usvyatsky, Prechistensky, Vskhodsky, Znamensky, Iznoskovsky, Kirovsky, Baryatinsky, Duminichsky, Dorogobuzhsky, Elninsky, Glinkovsky, Kardymovsky, Semlevsky, Izdeshkovsky, Dukhovshchinsky, Belsky, Vyazemsky, Gzhatsky, Yartsevsky, Kasplyansky, Ponimizchevsky, Kartsevsky, Ms. Safonovsky, Andreevsky.
According to the information received by the NKVD, recently in the Dorogobuzhsky, Znamensky, Semlevsky, Elninsky, Kardymovsky and Safonovsky regions, the enemy resumed hostilities, as a result of which parts of the Red Army and partisan detachments left part of the previously liberated territory.
During the stay of the German invaders in different districts of Smolensk region and especially during their retreat under the onslaught of the Red Army, industry, agriculture, transport, residential buildings, schools, hospitals, museums, government agencies, etc. have undergone barbaric destruction.
The population remaining in the occupied territory experienced unheard-of bullying, oppression and was partially tortured, shot and taken to the German rear.
A significant part of the collective farm cattle, stocks of food and manufactured goods, were also burned and destroyed by the invaders.
… During the "governance" in Sukhinichesky region, the Germans brutally tortured 36 civilians, 9 people were hanged, 369 were shot and 641 were taken with them to the deep rear.
In the Kirovsky district, the villages of Orlovka and Dmitrovka were completely burned down. 70 civilians in these villages were shot and burned in the ashes of their homes. In the village of Troitskoye of the Vypolzovsky village council, the Nazis drove 30 collective farmers into one of the farm houses and burned them alive, and those who ran out were shot on the spot. In the village of Vezhi of the same village council, 11 people were shot. More than 10 people were taken to the rear.
In Demidov district, according to far from complete information, over 400 people were brutally tortured and shot. In January of this year, 80 elderly invalids in the village of Kolabanovo were herded into a pit prepared in advance and shot from machine guns. Moreover, some of the disabled were only wounded, but they were buried alive in the same hole.
From the orphanage, in the same area, 4 minor girls were taken to the commandant's office, 3 of them Jewish and 1 Gypsy. On the way to the commandant's office, the Germans shot the girls in the Jewish cemetery.
Those detained and arrested were put in a special cold, so-called "partisan" pit. From there they were transferred to another room where they were stripped naked, they squeezed their heads into a special hole in the bottom of the barrel being beat with rubber truncheons and whips from a telegraph wire until they completely lost consciousness, while twisting their arms, cutting off their ears, noses, etc. After inhuman torture, the arrested were taken out of the camp and shot.
In Iznoskovsky district, the Germans, while retreating, burned down the village of Tikhachevo of Lyskovsky village council, while stabbing 84 collective farmers with bayonets, including 37 children and 10 old people. During this heinous massacre of the civilian population, 6 girls aged 16 to 20 were first raped, and then brutally killed and thrown into the ashes of burning houses.
In the village of Azarovo, Mezhechinsky village council, on February 5 of this year, the Germans drove the Red Army prisoners into one house, closed the door and set the house on fire. As a result, all 50 people were burned to death.
In addition, in the region, the Germans completely burned the villages of Orekhovka - 60 houses, Polyana - 20, Ogarevo - 8, Koshnyaki - 26, Life Waves - 12, Maryino - 20, Gridinki - 34, Kraskaya Polyana - 22. Kolodkino - 22. Zakharovo - 47, Sigovo - 28.
In the Slobodskoy District, the Nazi German invaders brutally tortured:
Ivan Fomin - for delivering a radio to a partisan detachment. They stabbed him with needles, beat him with sticks, then gouged out his eyes, broke his arms, threw a noose around his neck, tied him to a tree, and only a day later shot.
Zhukov - for ties with the partisans, beat with sticks, pricked with needles, broke his hands, and then hooked two iron hooks to his lower jaw and hung him on a tree, where he spent three days.
Novikovs (16, 60 years old) - because they cut down two telegraph poles, brutally beat them, and then shot them in the presence of their relatives.
Maria Stepanova from the village of Bulozhi was tortured, demanding to hand over the partisans. They cut off her ears, gouged out her eyes, put her in cold water for a long time, and then hung her up. Despite the brutal torture, she did not betray anyone.
In Karmanovsky district, German invaders in such villages as Kuvyldino burned 17 out of 19 houses, Zhevlatovo - 15 out of 17 houses, in Yakovlevo - 38 out of 50 houses, Gorovatovo - out of 55 houses 40, Rytkovo - out of 31 houses 25. The civilian population of these villages were robbed and brutally beaten by the Germans.
In the villages of Savenki, Khatibino, Ratkovo, Yakovlevo and others, the invaders forced the population to leave their homes, after which they plundered the property that remained in them and, leaving the village, set it on fire. Evgenia Ivanova tried to return to her house, to save something from the fire, the Germans shot her near the house. Stepan Fedotov, 80 years old, was unable to leave the house, for which the Germans stripped him, threw him into the snow, where he lay until he died.
Alexander Yakovlev, 83 years old, during the arson of his house refused to leave it, then the Germans burned the old man in his own house.
In Velizh region and in the town of Velizh, the Nazi invaders carried out mass executions of urban youth, especially Jews. A special quarter was set aside for the Jews, where they were allowed to live.
In the village of Pochinok of Krestovsky village council of Belizhsky district, the chairman of the collective farm Polina Volkova and her father Volkov, 70 years old, were hanged.
Collective farmer Nikifor Kurmelev was stabbed in the mouth with a stick, and then hanged.
In the village of Mikhailovo, Yastrebsky village council, 8 people were hanged. In the village of Kresty, two fighters were shot, and one of the fighters was buried alive.
In the village of Pukhnovo, a collective farmer was shot for refusing to greet a drunken German soldier.
A 60-year-old woman was hanged in the village of Krutoye for saying: "My son is defending the Motherland."
In the village of Shchetkino, 300 people, including 80 children, were locked up by the Germans in a barn and then burned.
Special message by P.P.Kondakov, Head of the UNKVD for Smolensk region to P.V.Fedotov, Head of the 2nd Directorate of the USSR NKVD and I.D.Bogdanov, Secretary of Smolensk regional committee of the Soviet Communist Party about the atrocities of the German Nazi troops in the temporarily occupied territories of Dukhovshchinsky and Prechistinsky districts of Smolensk region. June 24, 1942. Central Archives of the FSB.
We have obtained additional information on the atrocities of German Nazi soldiers against the civilian population of temporarily occupied Dukhovshchinsky and Prechistensky districts of Smolensk region.
On March 20, 1942, after a partisan raid on a group of German soldiers near the village of Novoselki, during which 5 Germans were killed and 1 was taken prisoner, German soldiers in the amount of 100 people surrounded the village and set it on fire. The civilians of the village were fleeing the fire. Outside the village, the Germans detained everyone, put them in one line, then all the men, along with the children, were shot from machine guns. In total, 23 people were shot, including very old people. In addition to these atrocities, the Germans tortured 57-year-old Anim Barykin, whose fingers, nose, ears and tongue were cut off. The Germans threw into the fire two 5-year-old children and a 60-year-old woman, Ekaterina Chubarova. All buildings in the village of Novoselki in the amount of 43 houses were burned by the Germans.
In February 1942, in the village of Sushany, partisans killed one German soldier, who under arms was forcing the entire population, including the elderly and children, to work.
On the second day, the Germans burned down two villages. The Germans opened fire on the fleeing population to kill. The German bandits completely undressed the surviving collective farmers and, in this form, forced them to transport their belongings.
On May 21, 1942, under the guise of an attack on partisan detachments, German Nazi robbers launched several tanks and about two infantry companies into the villages of Koshkovitsy, Markovo, and Khoryaki, Vedenie, Kishilitsy and Kochetovka of Dukhovshchinsky region.
Having robbed these villages, the Germans began to burn buildings that belonged to collective farmers, and perpetrated brutal massacres of the civilian population.
The village of Kishilitsy was completely burned down, the population of this village was herded into one house and exterminated by fire. 4 people, including 2 children, the Germans crushed with tanks.
The village of Kochergovka was completely burned down, 6 people from the population were killed. The village of Markovo was burned to the ground, 15 people were killed, two girls were raped and one was thrown alive into the fire of a burning house.
After the burning of the villages and the brutal massacre of the civilian population, the Nazis withdrew from the territory of these villages.
From the Memorandum by G.P.Volkov, Secretary of Kasplyansky District Committee of the Soviet Communist Party, Smolensk region “On the mass execution of the village inhabitants by the Nazi occupiers, Kasplya”. At the earliest, July 7, 1942. State Archives of Contemporary History of Smolensk Region.
A terrible massacre was carried out by the Nazis in Kaspla. Nazi monsters on July 2 and 7, 1942 shot 235 people, including children. The execution was carried out in groups, stripping them naked. Some of those to be shot were thrown into the pit alive, doused with gasoline and burned. Children were shot in the arms of their mothers. In short, a nightmare has occurred. The people remaining in the districts go to the partisan detachments.